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IOL 2004 Problem #4 Lakhota

Consider some words of Lakhota language (in Latin transliteration):

kĩza a single high-pitched tone sounds
žata it (e.g. a road) forks into two parts
šuža it is badly bruised
γi it is brown
miniža it is curled but can be smoothed again
geleza it is ruled: | | |
nuγa it is hard and immovable (e.g. a gnarl on a tree)
miniγa it is shrunk permanently
zi it is yellow
šli thick liquid is being squeezed out
kĩža a blending high-pitched tone sounds (e.g. a trill)
geleγa it is striped: ▋ ▋ ▋

(a) Match the following words with their translations given in misarranged order:

k'eγa, k'eza, phešniža, suza, xuγa

it sparks, it is fractured, the surface is in a scratched condition, it has a slight bruise, the surface is in a scraped condition

(b) Translate into Lakota:

a thin liquid is being squeezed out
it is soft and movable (e.g. an enlarged gland under the skin)
it is red hot
it is semi-hard and movable (e.g. a cartilage)
it is branching into several directions

(c) Explain the meaning of the word ži.

⚠ The letter x is pronounced similarly to English h as in hard; the letter γ is the devoiced correlate of x; š and ž are pronounced similarly to sh as in shoe and s as in pleasure, respectively. The letters k' and ph signify specific Lakhota consonants, and ĩ, i, e signify specific Lakhota vowels. Lakhóta is an Indian language (Siou family). It is spoken by 6000 people in the USA and Canada.

—Ivan A. Derzhanski