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IOL 2009 Problem #4 Old Indic

Given are Old Indic word stems which are thought to preserve the most ancient (Indo-European) position of the stress. They are divided into root and suffix by a hyphen. The stressed vowel bears the mark ̺́ .

vṛ́k-a- wolf
vadh-á- deadly weapon
sād-á- sitting on horseback
puṣ-ṭí- prosperity
sik-tí- effusion
pī-tí- drinking, draught
gá-ti- walk
vádh-ri- castrated
dhū-má- smoke
dṛ́-ti- leather bag
ghṛ́-ṇi- heat
ghṛ-ṇá- heat
kā́-ma- desire
pū́r-va- first
bhṛ́m-i- mobile
kṛṣ-í- tillage
stó-ma- hymn
dar-má- demolisher
nag-ná- naked
vák-va- rolling

(a) Explain why it is not possible to use these data to determine the placement of the stress of the following stems: bhāg-a-share’, pad-a-step’, pat-i-lord’, us-ri-morning light’.

(b) Indicate the stress of he word stems given below:

mṛdh-ra- foe tan-ti- cord svap-na sleep abh-ra- cloud
phe-na- foam bhār-a- burden bhū-mi- earth,soil ghan-a- killing
stu-ti- praise dū-ta- messenger ghar-ma- heat ghṛṣ-vi- exuberant

h indicates that the preceding consonant is aspirated (pronounced with a puff of air); , and n, sh and t in barn, marsh and art, uttered with the tip of the tongue turned back; is a vowel similar to the middle sound in American English bird. The mark ̺̄ denotes vowel length.

—Alexander Piperski