IOL 2012 Problem #1 Dyirbal
Here are some sentences in the central dialect of Dyirbal as well as their English translations:
|1.||bayi yaɽa ŋunɟaymuŋa baŋgu gurugugu biŋgunman|
|Booze is making the man that is always being blamed tired.|
|2.||balan yabu bimabanɟalŋaymuŋa baŋgul yaɽaŋgu guliŋgu ŋunɟaɲu|
|The strong man is blaming the mother that is always following death adders.|
|3.||balan waymin bambun baŋgu ɟugaŋgu ɟamiman|
|Sugar is making the healthy mother-in-law fat.|
|4.||bala yila wura baŋgul bargandu biŋgundu guniɲu|
|The tired wallaby is searching for the little feather.|
|5.||balan malayigara baŋgu garandu biŋgunman|
|The smoke is making the scorpion tired.|
|6.||bala gurugu baŋgul ŋumaŋgu munduŋgu dimbaɲu|
|The offended father is carrying the booze.|
|7.||bayi midin baŋgun bimaŋgu malayigaraguninaymuŋagu banɟan|
|The death adder that is always searching for scorpions is following the possum.|
|8.||bayi gubimbulu biŋgun baŋgu gurugugu ɟagunman|
|Booze is making the tired doctor fall asleep.|
|9.||bala garan baŋgul biɲɟiriɲɟu banɟan|
|The lizard is following the smoke.|
|10.||balan duŋan baŋgul yiriɲɟilagu guniɲu|
|The dragonfly is searching for the stinging tree.|
|11.||bala ɟuga baŋgun yabuŋgu ŋaɟilmuŋagu dimbaɲu|
|The mother that is always being ignored is carrying the sugar.|
|12.||bala diban ɟagiɲ baŋgul gubimbulugu ɟamiŋgu bilmban|
|The fat doctor is pushing the big stone.|
|13.||bala garan baŋgun waymindu dibanbilmbalŋaymuŋagu buɽan|
|The mother-in-law that is always pushing stones is looking at the smoke.|
|14.||balan baŋgay waɽu baŋgun bundiɲɟu ɟagiɲɟu guniɲu|
|The big grasshopper is searching for the bent spear.|
|15.||bayi biɲɟiriɲ biŋgun baŋgul ɲalŋgaŋgu mugurugu buɽan|
|The quiet boy is looking at the tired lizard.|
|16.||bayi ŋuma guli baŋgul yaɽaŋgu banɟalmuŋagu munduman|
|The man that is always being followed is offending the strong father.|
(a) A linguist thought there was an error in one of the Dyirbal sentences above. In fact there is no error. The explanation for what seemed strange to him is that one of the animal species is regarded as “old women” in one of the myths of the Dyirbal people. Which animal is it? What did the linguist consider to be an error?
(b) Translate into English:
- 17. balan ɲalŋga baŋgul ŋumaŋgu guniymuŋagu bambunman.
- 18. bala diban bilmbalmuŋa baŋgul biɲɟiriɲɟu guniɲu.
- 19. bayi bargan baŋgul yaɽaŋgu gubimbuluŋunɟanaymuŋagu banɟan.
(c) Here are some more Diyrbal words:
- bayimbam — grub, caterpillar;
- mugunanɟa — aunt (mother's elder sister);
- muŋga — loud noise.
Translate into Dyirbal:
- 20. The little wallaby is looking at the dragonfly.
- 21. The aunt that is always being followed is bending the feather.
- 22. The sleeping possum is ignoring the loud noise.
- 23. The caterpillar is searching for the man that is always carrying stones.
⚠ The Dyirbal language belongs to the Pama-Nyungan family; it is a dying Australian Aboriginal language spoken in northeast Queensland. ŋ = ng in hang. ɲ ≈ ni in onion; ɟ is a stop (as d) articulated in the same place in the mouth as ɲ. A death adder is an Australian venomous snake. A wallaby is a small animal, related to kangaroo. A possum is an Australian arboreal marsupial. Stinging trees are a genus of shrubs and trees with stinging hairs, some of which are dangerous to humans.