IOL 2019 Problem #3 Book Pahlavi script
Here are some words in Middle Persian written in the Book Pahlavi script:
Scholars employ two systems of rendering Middle Persian words using Roman characters. The system that reflects the Pahlavi spelling is called scientific transliteration. In turn, the system that represents the tentative pronunciation of the words is called transcription.
Some words could be spelt in multiple ways in the Pahlavi script. For example, the word dīdan ‘to see’ could be alternatively spelt as (scientific transliteration: HẔYTWN-tn') or as (scientific transliteration: dytn').
(a) Match each word above with its scientific transliteration and transcription. Note that the words written in the Pahlavi script may correspond to multiple Middle Persian words.
(b) In Book Pahlavi, one Middle Persian word is usually written with a certain graphic peculiarity. Identify this word.
(c) The following words are alternative spellings of some of the words above.
- Identify them and provide their scientific translations.
(d) Write in Book Pahlavi script:
KK. DKRA muɣ date-palm LL. dlwnd druwand evil, sinful, unrighteous MM. stwl stōr horse NN. cmbl čambar circle, hoop
(!) No additional explanation besides the answers is required, nor will be marked.
⚠ Middle Persian belongs to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. It was spoken in the Sasanian Empire and survived through centuries as a written language, especially in translations of the Zoroastrian canon. The transcription used here corresponds to the reconstructed pronunciation of the 3rd century CE. The mark ˉ indicates that the vowel is long. č = ch in church; h = h in hat; ǰ = j in judge; š = sh in sheesh; w = w in win; x ≈ ch in Scottish loch; ɣ like x but voiced; y = y in yum; z = z in zigzag. Knowledge of Modern Iranian languages is irrelevant for solving this problem.
—André Nikulin (consultant: Miguel Ángel Andrés Toledo)